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    Alexandre Meirelles Pdf

    Alexandre Meirelles Pope Canada IPC CIRCUMFERENTIAL SCC IN PIPELINE DUE TO LAND CREEPING Alexandre M. Pope; Cláudio S. Camerini. PDF | This paper describes the current and future ITS developments in the city of Belo Horizonte -Brazil, covering Alexandre Meirelles at University of Minho. PDF | In recent years, Brazil has witnessed protests organized by a Fernando S . Meirelles at FGV-EAESP - Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Alexandre Cappellozza at Methodist University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    The decision of investing in bus priority systems was stimulated by the federal government during the 80's and was based on two main factors: the lack of funds to implement rail transit systems and the need to improve the performance of bus systems, as a real alternative of medium capacity transit system. Therefore, the paper describes the operational planning, the design, the operational schemes and the performance of referential Brazilian busway systems. Examples of different arrangements of busway transit systems are analyzed, including the trunk-and- feeder operation, the use of biarticulated buses and different layouts of bus stops. Aspects that deserve improvements are also highlighted, including the introduction of ITS devices, which will contribute to the increase of the performance of busways, approaching them to the operation of a metro. Smart Urban Transport October 2 Meirelles — A Review of Bus Priority Systems in Brazil Mobility in Brazilian Metropolitan Areas Brazil is a large country with remarkable regional peculiarities, concerning cultural traces, climate, topography, personal incomes, economic development, urbanization, etc. Along the last 50 years, there was a dramatic change in terms of urban settlements. Today, the Brazilian population amounts million inhabitants. The population living in urban areas reaches some million, of which 36 million live in the seven metropolitan areas selected for this study. Considering the seven metropolitan areas within the scope of this paper, about two thirds of motorized trips in these areas are accounted for public transport, 56 percent by bus and a very minor portion by trolleybus and 6 percent by suburban railways and metros. About 32 percent of motorized trips are made by cars. Despite the increasing motorization of the Brazilian society, the urban bus is the main component of the public transport; it is used by the great majority of daily urban travels, in spite of the uncomfortable levels of service during peak times. As traffic congestion increases, efficient use of available road space becomes the crucial issue in transport policies.

    This database was complemented by a geographic information system GIS database available at the Municipality, in which many urban facilities and social-economic data are stored. For the near future, a desktop PC-based GIS will be introduced, so that survey data, inventories and other transport data can be easily retrieved and displayed at any division of the company. One of the main causes of delays for buses and the traffic itself is traffic signal. Belo Horizonte has nowadays signalized intersections, from them are supervised by central computers, running fixed time plans.

    Considering that the denser signal network is situated in the Central Area CBD where there are signalized intersections, it was decided to implement an UTC system covering all this area. Within the scope of the UTC, the traffic signal control system will be fully adaptive and is understood as a system with the capacity to calculate in real time the optimal cycle times, splits and offsets for all traffic controllers, based on the data of vehicle detectors that will be placed on all approaches of all signalized intersections.

    There will also be 20 video cameras for traffic monitoring and 10 variable message signs. For the purpose of implementing the UTC, an international bidding process was initiated with a prequalification phase in , which selected four consortiums to present commercial proposals by the end of The UTC is expected to be totally implemented in mid Previously, it was a prerogative of the State Police.

    That was an important milestone in the sense of improving the quality and coverage of traffic law enforcement, considering that traffic accidents are one of the main traffic problems in Belo Horizonte.

    In , accidents caused deaths, taking to a fatality rate of 6,0 deaths per One of the measures to tackle this problem is undoubtedly the implementation of electronic traffic enforcement equipment, which are basically controlling speed and red-running violations.

    The electronic traffic enforcement system is composed by 6 portable laser speed cameras, operating even during the night and on the weekends, 10 speed camera bumps, 12 red light cameras and 30 fixed speed cameras. They started to be implemented in January Bids will be invited for the supply and operation of more 20 speed camera bumps and 30 red light cameras until the end of this year. The train carries almost The low level of integration with the bus system justifies this low demand. This problem is being solved with the construction of new integrated stations and bus terminals beside present train stations.

    These improvements in integration will take the train demand to almost Consequently, fare integration is being improved and automatic fare collection is starting to be implemented both in the bus system and also in the train stations. CBTU Brazilian Company of Urban Trains , which is the federal institution that operates the train, decided for the implementation of magnetic stripe cards ISO format , although the validators are able to hold the installation of contactless smart card readers.

    In , BHTRANS finished another comprehensive study, named BHBUS, that designed a new public transport network, within the concept of fully integration both among bus lines and the metropolitan train, adopting a scheme of trunk and feeder services.

    This integration will use two main instruments: physical integration at stations and fare integration by the introduction an automatic fare collection system, using contactless smart card technology. The consortium of bus operators will be responsible for contracting and managing the automatic fare collection system, under the delegation and supervision of BHTRANS. It is intended to use stored value combi cards for multiple use, some of them personalized cards for elderly people passes, student passes, one month ticket transport, etc.

    The system works using beacons emitting radio frequency signals that will be received by the validators inside the buses. Car traffic is the main cause of road congestion and road accidents. Buses and cars generate most of the air pollution and noise. In many other countries, even in the developed countries, the modal split in urban areas shows exactly the opposite, private cars are responsible for the major part of urban transport. For that reason, there is a striving for the improvement of public transport to turn it more attractive to car users.

    Brazil is in an advantageous situation, compared to the one those countries are facing, since it has to keep and increase public transport ridership, not shifting the modal split from the car mode to the public transport mode. Policies Towards Improving Brazilian Public Transport The process called "municipalisation" of urban transport; fruit of the new Constitution and of the new Brazilian Traffic Code marked the 90's.

    That is to say that Federal and State Government transferred the management of public transport to the municipalities.

    During this period, many local governments created institutions dedicated to the management of public transport by bus and assumed road traffic enforcement, what was previously an attribution of state governments mainly in metropolitan areas. Besides, the Federal Government implemented a program to transfer all suburban passenger rail systems to local governments.

    There has been a clear tendency for policies that give privileges to public transport by bus. It is assumed by all levels of government that it is possible to improve bus transport capacity through different measures, such as a high level of travelways segregation, operation of trunk and feeder systems, better on-board or off-board automatic fare collection systems, improved layout and operation of bus stops, implementation of bus actuated traffic-signal systems and improvement of bus quality design, comfort and performance.

    Indeed, bus operation along properly designed segregated lanes offers a much better level of service than in mixed-traffic, on which passenger flows can reach more than So, the question was, through infrastructure and operational measures, to convert bus systems into medium-capacity transit systems, capable of carrying flows varying from The so-called conventional bus lanes may be delineated through road markings and studs; d No right-of-way - the circulation of buses occur in mixed-traffic conditions, with transit vehicles competing for space with other vehicles.

    It is important to emphasize that purpose of this paper is to describe the Brazilian experience with median bus lanes and median busways1 , as they have been showing very similar results.

    A basic busway, comprising one lane for buses in each direction is essentially a traffic engineering measure.

    Source: Adapted from TRL, Where passenger demands are high, the provision of facilities to permit buses to overtake one another at bus stops can increase throughput and commercial speed considerably. Trunk-and-feeder operations also offer good performance.

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    In this system, feeder buses collect passengers and bring them to a transfer terminal, where they transfer to line-haul buses; some systems allow transfer without payment of an additional fare e. Belo Horizonte, Curitiba. Although not joined together, the group of buses started and stopped broadly in unison. It evolved in Porto Alegre, for example, into bus ordering in which buses are allocated to one of three groups A-B-C. The buses arrive in random order at the beginning of a section and are marshaled into the preferred sequence, though not into strict convoys Figure 1.

    This method operates effectively and can improve commercial speeds at high levels of passenger demand. However, passenger transfer capacity at bus stops is often the constraint on system performance and door configurations and ticketing arrangements are often more important than bus capacity alone. Smart Urban Transport October 5 Meirelles — A Review of Bus Priority Systems in Brazil Figure 1 — Bus Convoy Operations Bus priority systems in Brazil Background In Brazil, the implementation of bus priority systems started in mid 70's and the country has at present a long experience in catering for heavy passenger demand along urban and suburban corridors by high-capacity bus priority schemes.

    Indeed, Brazil has made some pioneering work in improving the performance of bus transport, as it is the case of Curitiba.

    The main measures to create bus-priority schemes in Brazil include: a provision of separate travelways in the form of with-flow and contra-flow bus lanes or busways; b granting buses the priority at traffic signals; and c permitting buses an entry right or turns prohibited to other traffic.

    Many successful schemes result from a combination of these and other measures.

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    Brazil has developed a unique experience in designing innovative high-flow bus-priority schemes. This experience is particularly suited to overcome congestion problems associated with numerous buses arriving almost simultaneously at critical bus stops where large numbers of passengers wait to board.

    Under such conditions the introduction, for example, of a single conventional bus lane may generate benefits also to non-bus traffic. Smart Urban Transport October 6 Meirelles — A Review of Bus Priority Systems in Brazil In fact, there were in Brazil in approximately km of busways and km of bus lanes, according to a survey conducted by ANTP , and there will be at least more 84 km of busways until the end of this year.

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    Bus priority schemes: Brazilian practical examples This section focuses on referential Brazilian practical experiences on the implementation and operation of successful bus priority schemes; that is to say, high flow bus corridors, in which median bus lanes or median busways were adopted. The public transport system runs 2. The city has two bus transfer terminals, 6 km of median busways and 8 km of bus lanes. Bus lanes and busways started to be implemented in , as part of a transport master plan, which forecasted the implementation of 29 km of bus priority facilities.

    Along the time some stretches were deactivated because of modifications on traffic circulation schemes.

    Nevertheless, the main important busway constructed at that time - Avenida Cristiano Machado - is still in operation and is being improved periodically. It is a purpose-built, median busway that links the city center with the northern suburbs.

    At the city center end of the busway, buses have exclusive use of the lower level of a double deck tunnel to link the busway with the city center. The busway has off-line bus stop bays to permit overtaking. The busway is separated from general traffic lanes by landscaped islands of varying width with fences to channel pedestrians to pedestrian crossings. At some points, there are pedestrian bridges. An automatic fare collection system AFC - contactless smartcard based, was recently contracted and will start operating late this year.

    Together with electronic ticketing, an automatic vehicle identification system AVL will be implemented, what will certainly improve the reliability of the bus services. All these measures AFC and AVL take part of the new public transport plan, named BHBUS, that includes the implementation of 10 bus transfer terminals, 3 bus-train transfer terminals and 20 km of busways and bus lanes, forming an integrated urban transport system in accordance with a trunk and feeder model, within a period of 5 years.

    The public transport system runs buses, which carry on average The Amoreiras corridor is constituted by a 4,5 km median busway and a segment of 0,5 km of bus lanes in downtown area, linking the busway to the central bus terminal.

    Como estudar para concursos - Alexandre Meirelles - 3ª Ed.pdf

    Public Smart Urban Transport October 7 Meirelles — A Review of Bus Priority Systems in Brazil transport in the city is integrated, following the trunk and feeder model, with six bus transfer terminals. The busway is separated from general traffic lanes by concrete barriers and metal fences to channel pedestrians to pedestrian crossings. Traffic signals are coordinated, enabling green waves. Public transport is managed by a public company, URBS, and is operated by 10 private companies under concession contracts.

    The public transport system runs 1. These axis have a central busway, physically separated from two lateral service roads. The two first structural axis Norte and Sul were implemented in These terminals are linked in turn by km of circular interdistrict routes. The tube stations provide a simple and creative means of speeding up operations.

    These glass and steel struc- tures, 33 feet long and 9 feet in diameter, allow for loading and unloading at bus floor level. Fares are pre-paid - by token or to the attendant - and side elevators allow special access for the physically handicapped. To avoid streetscape pollution and the cutting effect of a large number of buses running on a busway the decision was made to increase the size of the operating units and improve their design both in terms of emissions and visual impact.

    The first upgrade was made by using articulated buses. Each unit would be 25 meters in length and be capable of carrying up to passengers. The project was developed and tested in a little over 6 months and the first route was inaugurated in December , with 29 units transporting The new route also uses the tube stations and pre-paid loading at floor level; thus boarding times are also kept at subway values.

    Finally, operating speeds are kept high by the use of intelligent traffic signals along the route, which are timed for green wave progression of the units and, by means of loop detectors in the pavement, providing extra priority for the peak hour flows. Even if there still exists a small difference in speed between a bus based mass transport system and a rail based one, this difference pales when the question of costs is raised.

    The city has ten bus transfer terminals, 13 km of median busways and 27 km of bus lanes. The Avenida Anhanguera busway was implemented in and remodeled in It is constituted of a 13,4 km median busway.

    It is separated from general traffic lanes by kerbed median with studs and metal fences. Along the busway there are 19 bus stations and 5 bus terminals. The bus stops are located in a central median. It is important to stress that in this operational model boardings and alightings occur at the bus floor level in raised platforms at the median stations and the busway is separated from mixed traffic by kerbs and fences.

    Public transport is managed by a public company, EPTC, and is operated by 14 private companies and one public company. Experiments with bus-priority schemes started in The city has 17 bus transfer terminals, 27 km of median busways and 1 km of bus lanes, along five radial routes. It is in operation in the corridor Avenida Assis Brasil and Avenida Farrapos since , along an extension of 9,1 km of a median busway. In the corridors Cascatinha 2,7 km and Oswaldo Aranha 1,6 km , the buses run in a median busway with kerbed separators, where bus stops are located.

    Public transport is managed by a public company, EMTU, and is operated by 10 private companies and one public company.

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